The student should acquire, correlate and improve several concepts and knowledge on mechanisms associated with oxidative stress and antioxidants either from natural origin or synthetic. The student should also be familiar with the principal methodologies to detect and quantify the generation of reactive oxygen species as well as to acquire solid specific knowledge on the different classes of antioxidants to be further applied in a final thesis or in a professional activity related to any topic of the antioxidant’s field.
1. Contents, functioning, evaluation of the UC.
2. Oxidative stress: Definition. Ozone. Oxygen triplet. Oxygen singlet. Sources, target molecules and products. Formation and fate of oxygen and nitrogen reactive oxygen species. Nitrogenated and chlorinated atmospheric pollutants. Interaction with lipids, proteins, nucleic acids. Modulating radical reactions.
3. Antioxidants: Definition, exemples. Methodologies to assess the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential.
4. Antioxidant enzymes: mode of action of catalase, citochrome C peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxyde dismutases, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferases. Genetic polymorphisms.
5. Non-nutrients antioxidants: shikimic acid and the formation of antioxidants. Natural and synthetic phenolic compounds: mode of action, sources, applications.
6. Nutritional antioxidants: mode of actions of α -tocopherol, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, linoleic acid isomers, n3-PUFA, cis-MUFA. Selenium as an antioxidant.